Similarly, Dutton (1994) writes, "The prevalence of violence in homosexual relationships, which also appear to go through abuse cycles is hard to explain in terms of men dominating women." The cycle of abuse concept is widely used in domestic violence programs, particularly in the United States.
It also builds as the result of illness, legal or financial problems, unemployment, or catastrophic events, like floods, rape or war.
To prevent violence, the victim may try to reduce the tension by becoming compliant and nurturing.
In intimate partner relationships, the perpetrator may buy presents or the couple may engage in passionate sex. For instance, Scott Allen Johnson developed a 14-stage cycle that broke down the tension-building, acting-out and calm stages further.
For instance, there are six stages in the "escalation" or tension building stage, which includes triggers, the victim feeling victimized, angry and depressed, isolation and revenge planning.
The release of energy reduces the tension, and the abuser may feel or express that the victim "had it coming" to them.